Nearly four in every 1000 youths and five in every 1000 adults in the United States reported having type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) from 2019 through 2022.


  • Analysis of the 2019-2022 cycles of the NHIS, a nationally representative study of the noninstitutionalized US population.
  • Data were collected through in-person and telephone interviews, with response rates ranging from 47.8% to 59.1% for youths (aged < 18 years) and 48.9% to 59.1% for adults (aged ≥ 18 years).
  • Analysis included 110,283 adults and 30,708 youths (with reporting by adult proxies).


  • Among youths, the reported T1D prevalence per 1000 was 3.5, with the highest rates among those aged 10-17 years (5.0), males (4.0), Hispanic youths (3.5), and non-Hispanic White youths (3.9).
  • Among adults, the reported prevalence per 1000 was 5.3, and it was highest among those aged 45-64 years (6.1) and ≥ 65 years (5.3), non-Hispanic Black adults (4.8), and non-Hispanic White adults (5.9).


“Consistent with the study results, emerging evidence suggests a high prevalence of [T1D] among middle-aged and older adults…There was also a substantial burden of [T1D] in racial and ethnic minority youths and adults…These patients have less access to care and state-of-the-art diabetes technology, contributing to disparities in glycemic control and complications. More data on barriers to care are needed to inform interventions that advance health equity in populations with [T1D].”


The study was conducted by Michael Fang, PhD, and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, and published as a research letter online on April 4, 2024, in JAMA.


Possible misclassification because autoantibodies were not measured.

Some subgroup estimates were imprecise due to small sample sizes.

The response rate was ~50%-60%.


The work was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Fang had no further disclosures.

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